Showing posts from tagged with: Goods

Claiming Preferential Duty Rates – what you need to know?

Free Trade Agreements Facilitation goals can include removing or cutting customs duties on goods; scrapping any limits (quotas) on the amounts firms can import/export; allowing businesses to provide services and bid for public contracts in the other country and cutting red tape whilst maintaining important standards like health and safety or environmental protection.

The reduction or removal of customs duties is usually the benefit that traders will focus on because it provides a tangible financial benefit to their business by reducing the cost of their raw materials or by making their goods more competitively priced in the free trade market.

However here are conditions attached to the FTA such as goods must be deemed to have preferential origin status in the country of supply and the importer must have proof of this origin status.

Origin is the 'economic' nationality of goods traded in commerce

Origin with regard to Customs is comparable to people passing through an airport after arriving in a destination country. The ease of movement through immigration controls depends on your nationality and any agreements made between your country and the country you are now entering. These checks can range from a simple glance at your passport to more vigorous checks and the need to purchase a visa for countries with no agreements in place.

In the case of goods, their preferential origin status is their nationality or citizenship and their proof of origin status (EUR1 or supplier declaration) is their passport.

Like citizenship, preferential origin is subject to a number of conditions. When an Irish citizen travels from Canada to the United States they are not doing so as a Canadian citizen and likewise it is not enough for a product to be simply transported from a country to claim that it has preferential origin status in that country.

The two principle determining factors in assessing a goods right to preferential origin are; that they are wholly obtained in that country or that they have they been sufficiently transformed in that country to confer origin.

Wholly obtained

Products are considered as "wholly obtained" in a country when they are entirely produced in that country without having used input from other countries.

Examples of wholly obtained products include:

  • Vegetable products harvested or gathered in that country;
  • Live animals born and raised in that country;
  • Products obtained from live animals in that country;
  • Products obtained from hunting or fishing conducted in that country;
  • Products obtained by maritime fishing and other products taken from the sea by a vessel of that country;
  • Mineral products extracted from its soil, from its territorial waters or from its seabed;
  • Products extracted from marine soil or subsoil outside that country’s territorial waters, provided that the country has sole rights to work that soil or subsoil and products produced from a combination of any of the above examples.

Sufficiently transformed

Ordinarily it should be clear whether or not a product has been wholly obtained in a country but what if a product has not been wholly obtained but has been manufactured in a country, can this qualify as preferentially originated?

The answer to this is yes.  It may qualify but first it must satisfy the conditions for preferential origin as set out in the FTA between the two countries.

The specific rules on how a product will qualify as being sufficiently worked in order to confer origin are dependent on the tariff classification of the finished product that is exported.  An outline of the classification process can be found here.

Some of the listed rules consider whether the processing carried out has added sufficient value to the exported product, that the finished product is of a different tariff heading to the non-originating raw materials used, that specific processing operations have been carried out or a combination of any these options.

Other concepts in preferential origin

The general tolerance or de minimis rule may allow the use certain non-EU materials in the processing of a wholly obtained product whilst still retaining preferential origin status.

Minimal operations or simple processing operations such as packaging or labelling products will not be sufficient to confer origin.

There are other considerations with preferential origin claims such as directly transporting the product, the non-manipulation of the product and duty drawback rules. The concept of cumulation can make it easier to meet the conditions for preferential origin claims, by forming countries into groups or zones for origin purpose. The application of these rules and concepts will differ depending on the products and countries involved and should be considered on a case by case basis.

It should be noted that while it is the exporter who is responsible for declaring the origin status of the goods, it is the importer who will receive the benefit of the preferential duty rate of the imported goods. The implication of this is that in a post clearance audit situation, if it is found that the product doesn’t qualify for preferential origin it will be the importer who will be assessed on the difference between the preferential rate of duty and the duty rate applied without preferential treatment. As assessing the originating status is generally completed on a self-review basis by the exporter, the importer should therefore be aware of the preferential origin rules in order to carry out their due diligence on their supplier’s claim of origin.

In cases where the preferential origin status may include an element of doubt, a trader can apply to their national customs authorities for an origin ruling. This will provide them with certainty regarding the application of the rules. In the EU this ruling is known as a Binding Origin Information (BOI).

Proof of origin

In order for a good to claim preferential origin on import the exporter must provide proof of origin status which comes in the form of either a preferential origin certificate or a supplier’s declaration. A preferential origin certificate is completed by the exporter and stamped by customs on export. The preferential origin certificate that is used in the EU is called a EUR1.

Alternatively, an exporter can make a declaration on the commercial invoice that the goods have preferential origin. In order to make an invoice declaration for goods exceeding a value of €6,000 an exporter will have to apply to Revenue to become an approved exporter.

The Registered Exporter system (the REX system) is the system of certification of origin of goods that applies in the Generalised System of Preference (GSP) of the European Union and was introduced on 1st January 2017 with a transition period running to 2020. To be entitled to make out a supplier’s declaration on origin, an economic operator will have to be registered in a database by their competent authorities. The economic operator will become a "registered exporter".

Important points to consider

  • Are the goods “wholly obtained”?
  • Do they qualify as sufficiently transformed? Note: that they have been correctly classified and the correct rule has been applied.
  • Will other factors affect the preferential origin status?
  • Will a ruling (Binding Origin Information) be required?
  • Do you need to register on the REX system?
  • Do you know how to complete a EUR1 or a supplier’s declaration?
  • When you receive proof of origin from an exporter, have you made sufficient enquiries to assess that this has been correctly issued?

For more information about our partnership with BDO Ireland click here.

BDO Ireland | | 0 comments

Brexit and Borders

As we move into the negotiation and “divorce” phase of Brexit the main questions being asked by Irish Exporters are

Will there be additional tariffs to consider

Will there be border controls on trade with the UK

While nothing is known with certainty, particularly in relation to tariffs, there are at this point some extremely likely outcomes which businesses need to start preparing for.

Tariff and Duty Costs

The question on the introduction or not of tariffs is probably the most “known unknown”. The answer will depend on whether, or not, there is some form of (Free) Trade Agreement concluded between the EU and the UK. This it-self will only be known after the conclusion of, or at least positive developments in the “Divorce Negotiations”.

At a high level there are two possible outcomes:

A Free Trade Agreement is concluded which allows for a 0% duty rate on trade between the EU and UK.
If this is concluded Exporters still need to be aware of two potential complications
i) Most FTAs require companies to prove their goods are “originating” in order to benefit from the preferential duty rate. This in itself can be a complex process.
ii) Most FTAs do not cover agricultural products or restrict the benefits for agricultural products. While this may be unlikely for an EU-UK Trade agreement it still needs to be considered.

No FTA type agreement is reached and Tariffs are imposed.
In this case the tariff on import into Ireland/ the EU will be the duty rate currently applied by the EU. The tariff on import into the UK will be set independently by the UK Government. This could range from 0% to EU tariff rates to WTO bound rates.

A prudent approach therefore is to assess the impact of EU/WTO rates in looking at the potential additional duty cost that might arise on imports into the UK; and assess the impact of the current EU rates on imports into Ireland from the UK.

 

Borders

The key question at present, possibly more than tariffs, is whether there will be border controls introduced. This tends to break down into two aspects

Will there be border controls, and the requirement for Export and Import Declarations, at the Sea Ports and Airports?

Will there be border controls, and the requirement for Export and Import Declarations, at the North-South Border?

The unfortunate answer is that it is extremely difficult to see a situation where, under current EU legislation, there are no border controls.

We do have to look however at what this means.

Firstly will there be a requirement to lodge Export and Import declarations (SADs in Ireland/C88 in the UK)? It is almost impossible to see a situation where this will not be a requirement once the UK is a non-EU Country.

What does this mean?

Customs Declarations require 54 boxes of information to be supplied to Revenue, from details of the consignor/consignee to customs value to tariff classification to weights. Probably the most complex part of this is the requirement to provide the tariff classification.

These Export and Import Declarations need to be lodged with Customs, electronically, prior to export/import. Most goods will obtain instant clearance (95%) but some goods will require further checks before being allowed to clear. In all cases however these Declarations can be subject to post-clearance audit any time within the next three years.

It is important to remember that the lodging of Export and Import Declarations is no different to lodging any Tax Declaration and therefore the information supplied to Customs needs to be 100% accurate and correct or you may be subject to additional duty costs, fines and penalties (As with any Tax Audit).

The next concern is the type of border controls which might be introduced by Customs. At this point this is not 100% clear but ideally, will involve the use of electronic systems to minimise delays. As we know from many of the recent news reports this is a critical aspect for Revenue at present.

What next?

At this point most companies impacted by trading in the UK are looking at reviewing their supply chains and assessing the impact of additional tariff and non-tariff barriers on their businesses.

This modelling can be done using many resources. Enterprise Ireland, for example recently launched the ‘Brexit SME Scorecard’, a new interactive online platform which can be used by all Irish companies to self-assess their exposure to Brexit under six business pillars. Based on answers supplied by the user, the Scorecard generates an immediate report which contains suggested actions and resources, and information on events for companies to attend, to prepare for Brexit. The platform can be accessed at www.prepareforbrexit.ie

We would therefore recommend that companies pro-actively engage in completing this type of analysis and increase their knowledge of Customs.  This is particularly important for those companies who sell only within Europe, and have a significant portion of sales in the UK,  as this may be their first interaction with the Customs Authorities.

 

For more information about our partnership with BDO Ireland click here.

BDO Ireland | | 0 comments

Canada – Opening opportunities for Irish business

On the 15th February 2017, The European Parliament voted in Strasbourg for the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) between the EU and Canada, concluding the ratification process of this deal at the EU level. The deal was approved by 408 votes to 254, with 33 abstentions.

Key features of CETA include:

  • Eliminates most tariffs:On the day that CETA enters into force, it would eliminate 98 percent of all tariffs on goods and services between the EU and Canada.
  • Cuts red tape
  • Reduces barriers to trade
  • Provides access to public contracts at all levels
  • Improves access for trade in services
  • Improves labour mobility
  • Promotes and protects investment

The intention is for the agreement to be “provisionally applied” almost in its entirety after Canada has amended some of its own legislation concerning among others intellectual property, copyright and patent laws. This could take place as early as April of this year, at which time most customs duties between the EU and Canada will be removed.

If a Member State would not ratify the agreement, the European Council would then have to decide if the refusal is “permanent and definitive”. Until this happens the agreement will continue to be applied.

CETA and Brexit

As the UK will still be a member of the EU when the CETA agreement is provisionally implemented, they will be able to enjoy the benefits of tariff free trade while it remains a Member State. However, it is much less certain whether the UK will still be in the EU by the time CETA has been ratified by all Member States, as this may take a number of years. While the position is not entirely clear, it is highly doubtful whether CETA would continue to apply to the UK once it had left the EU.

This uncertainty would make Ireland an attractive alternative for Canadian companies wishing to establish an entry point into the EU market. For Canadian companies who have a UK base, it would make sense to consider establishing a presence in Ireland to ensure continued access to the EU market post-Brexit.

There are a number of advantages that Ireland offers that would be of interest to Canadian investors; English-speaking, young and educated workforce, common law system, competitive corporate tax regime and a strategic geographical location between Canada and mainland Europe.

 

Interaction with other Trade Agreements

The CETA deal now means that Ireland as part of the EU, has trade agreements in place with two out of the three participating countries of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), as a preferential trade agreement has been in place with Mexico since 2000 (2001 for services).

Whilst the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) won’t happen under President Trump’s tenure, forward thinking EU companies may now be able to export EU products to Canada tariff free under CETA and if they undergo sufficient working in Canada they could access the US market tariff free under NAFTA.

Currently, EU exports of some frozen beef products to the Canadian market are dutiable at 26.5%. Some food preparations that contain 50% or more by weight of dairy content are dutiable at 274.5%. Therefore, the barriers to trade can be clearly quantified for prospective exporters to the Canadian market. By removing these tariffs, Canada is opening up its market to suppliers who would have been previously deterred by the high tariffs imposed on their goods.

There is clear proof of the benefits enjoyed by the EU from free trade agreements. As an example, EU exports to South Korea have increased by more than 55% since the EU-Korea trade deal entered into force in 2011. Exports of certain agricultural products increased by 70%, and EU car sales in South Korea tripled over this five-year period. It is estimated that EU companies have saved €2.8 billion in reduced or eliminated customs duties since this agreement was applied. The Korea agreement was also provisionally applied during its ratification process which is still ongoing.

How to take advantage of tariff free trade

For the free trade agreement to apply to your imported or exported goods, they must be deemed to have “preferential origin” status.

In effect, this means that goods must be either;

  • manufactured from raw materials or components which have been grown or produced in the beneficiary country or, should that not be the case,
  • at least undergo a certain amount of working or processing in the beneficiary country. What constitutes sufficient working or processing depends on the rules applicable to the tariff heading of the product.

Therefore, it is important to be clear on the correct classification of your products. If either the classification or the origin status of your goods are unclear, it is possible to seek confirmation from Revenue by way of a binding origin or binding tariff decision.

 

For more information about our partnership with BDO Ireland click here.

BDO Ireland | | 0 comments